Diamond Inclusions | GIA Certified loose diamonds Melbourne

 

Diamond Inclusions

 

Inclusion is a term given to any type of blemish that is found inside the diamond itself. Inclusions can affect the clarity of the diamond and can affect the value in a positive or a natural way, depending on what the final result is and the demand for that particular included stone. White diamonds are expected to possess no inclusions, while the famed black diamonds gain their colour from possessing many inclusions.

Crystallisation

CrystallisationCrystal refers to the mineral deposit found inside the diamond, and are one of the more common inclusions that you can encounter. This can be seen either as a larger, spread area, or individually spaced from one another, or even on its own. Crystals are caused during the formation process, although they can also form from the artificial treatment of the stone. Black diamonds will compromise a lot of crystals, owing to their darker hue.

 

Pinpoint crystals

Pinpoint crystalsPinpoint crystals are small, white dots that will appear inside the diamond on their own, rather than as a larger cluster of crystals. These crystals can only be seen using a 10x magnification glass, scope, or loupe, making them otherwise unnoticeable to the naked eye. These crystals can also be darker in colour, again owing to the formation process beneath the earth’s crust.

 

Cloud crystals

Cloud crystalsCloud crystal inclusions occur when a group of pinpoint crystals cluster together to form an almost haze like inclusion. These can be seen without the need for a loupe, and can often affect the clarity of any nearby facets. Cloud crystals can also come in a darker shade of haze. Black diamonds will be comprised of many cloud crystals, creating their distinctive colour.

 

Cavities

CavitiesA cavity inside the diamond is the result of a naturally occurring flaw in the formation process. These cavities appear as either depression or an opening in shape, and can often make the diamond seem hollow or fragile. Cavities can also be caused during the cutting or polishing process, where a surface crystal either falls out or is forcibly removed. A cavity can sometimes account for 25% of the diamond’s carat weight.

 

Chips

ChipsChips are a shallow dent in the surface of the diamond which extends into the shape itself. They are most often the result of poor cutting techniques, or by severe trauma caused from impact with a hard surface. Chips can throw out the light quality and symmetry of a diamond if they are large enough, and can also compromise the stone's strength and durability as well.

 

Bruises

BruisesBruises are similar to chips in that they are both caused by poor treatment of the diamond or accidental impact with a hard surface. Bruises are distinguishable from standard chips by the appearance of a faint sliver that will extend from the base of the bruise deep into the stone. Bruises affect the clarity of the stone, and can also signify weakened durability and light quality.

 

Feathers

FeathersA feather inclusion refers to a fracture in the diamond which often showcases fine lines around the damage, similar to that of a bird feather. Feathers will often appear either as a white inclusion, but may also show as a completely transparent sliver, only noticeable due to a bevel around the sides. Feathers are one of the more serious of the inclusion conditions, as they can compromise the durability of the diamond itself.

 

Needles

NeedlesNeedles are very thin lines that appear similar to a feather, minus the additional, radiating lines. Needles can appear as a white or dark inclusion and will showcase a cylindrical, rod like visual when seen under a loupe. Needles are one of the more serious dangers to the durability of a diamond, as the presence of them can allude to the stone being either very brittle or structurally weak.

 

Twinning wisp

Twinning wispTwinning wisps are a flat ribbon of either pinpoint or cloud inclusions, and are caused by deformation of the diamond during the formation process. Whilst a twinning wisp doesn't pose any structural problems to the diamond (they are quite common in black diamonds, for instance), they are one of the more unsightly of all of the inclusions, due to their "tied rope" appearance.

 

Natural inclusions

Natural inclusionsNatural inclusions refer to an unpolished face or facet and are most evident in the girdle of the diamond. They will appear as either triangles or parallel shapes, which may also fall into the shape of the diamond itself. Natural inclusions cloud the clarity and light quality of the stone but do not pose any other problems outside of aesthetic concerns.

 

Indented natural inclusions

Indented natural inclusionsIndented natural inclusions are the result of a depression in the diamond suffered during the formation process. They can also appear to be small indentations, and severely affect the facets around this inclusion. Indented inclusions are usually a sign of a brittle stone, and can impact the value of the diamond, depending on its size. Indented inclusions can also compromise the light quality, and make the stone look asymmetrical.

 

Extra facets

Extra facetsDuring the cutting process, it is possible to create an additional facet on the diamond, more than what the average amount of facets is for that particular diamond shape. These are done in the original, rough state of the diamond, and are used to either mask a chip or a scratch, or to add a culet at the bottom of certain cut types. Extra facets can affect the symmetry of the stone, depending on their placement.

 

Internal graining

Internal grainingAn irregularity in the growth of the diamond can create what is known as internal graining. These inclusions will appear as a haze throughout the whole stone and are one of the rarest forms of inclusions to encounter. In some cases, stones with a unique graining feature may be quite desirable, with some of the most famous black diamonds discovered featuring some form of internal graining.

 

Grain centres

Grain centresGrain centres are a cluster of growth distortions, similar to the effect of internal graining, but on a larger scale. Grain centres showcase a unique, tornado-like effect inside the diamond, and can occur as part of a larger group of similar growths, or on their own.

 

 

Bearded girdles

Bearded girdlesA bearded girdle refers to a collection of feather inclusions that form in the girdle and shoot into the interior of the stone. This mostly occurs during the cutting process, and can also occur if the stone has been bruted - where it is placed opposite another diamond on a spinning axis. Bearded girdles can lessen the brightness and glare of a diamond, however, pose no threats to the diamond’s strength.

 

Knot inclusions

Knot inclusionsKnots are one of the major threats to a diamond’s clarity, and appear as if the diamond’s surface has been raised, when viewed under a loupe. Knots are usually the result of a poor cutting and polishing process and are not noticeable until after the procedure is completed. Knot inclusions can severely affect the perceived symmetry of a diamond.

 

Laser drill holes

Laser drill holesIt is possible to remove some inclusions through the injection of acid or bleach into the diamond’s interior. To do this, diamond cutters must use a pinpoint laser beam to “drill” into the diamond, of which leaves a permanent scar, akin to a needle inclusion. The presence of a drill hole will immediately affect the stone's overall value but can be suitable for use in certain jewellery, such as an earring.

 

Fracture filling

fracture fillingA diamond that has had a laser drilled into it can be filled with molten glass, making the actual drill hole less visible. This is known as fracture filling and is most noticeable as a brief flash of colour when rolling the diamond backwards and forwards. In some cases, fracture filling can often add to the stone's perceived brilliance, however, will affect the value of the diamond negatively.

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